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Tafsir of [1:1-3]

Virtues of Al Faatihah

Al Faatihah is the best of surahs:

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “While Jibril (alayhis salam) was sitting with the Prophet, he heard a sound above him and raised his head. He said, ‘This is a door of heaven which has been opened today and which has never been opened before today. An angel descended from it.’ He said, ‘This is an angel who has descended to earth who has never descended before today.’ He gave the greeting and said, ‘Give the good news of two lights which you have been given and which no Prophet before you was given: the Fatiha of the Book and the end of Surah al-Baqarah. You will not recite a letter of them without being given it.’”

(Muslim)

Al Faatihah is divided into two and is a conversation between a slave and His lord:

Abu Hurayrah said: "I heard Allah's Messenger saying that Allah said: I have divided the prayer into two halves between Me and My slave. My slave will have what he asks for. When the slave recites: All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Allah says: My slave has praised Me. When the slave recites: The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, Allah says: My slave has modified Me best. When the slave recites: He is the owner of the Day of Judgment. Allah says: My slave has glorified Me and once He says: My slave has surrendered himself to My will. When the slave recites: You we worship and From you we seek help, Allah says: This is between Me and My slave. My slave will have whatever he has asks for. When the slave recites: Guide us to the straight path, The path of those on whom You bestowed Your favors. Those who neither exasperated you, nor went astray. At this Allah says: This is for My slave and My slave will have what he has asked for."

(Muslim)

Tafsir of [1:1]

"All praise is for Allah, the Lord of all the worlds"

Al Hamd

Al Hasan narrated that Dawud 'alayhis salaam said: ‘O my God, if every hair of mine had two tongues glorifying you night and day at all times, I would not have returned the favour of even one bounty’ (recorded by Imam Ahmad in Kitab ul Zuhd)

‘Ali radiyAllahu ‘anhu said about alhamdulillah that it is: A statement that Allah liked for Himself, was pleased with for Himself and He likes that it be repeated. (Ibn Kathir)

Al-Hamd means all kind of praises because the favours of Allah are immeasurable/uncountable and He is not expecting any reward for what He is doing (unlike human beings, even if they say “I don’t need your thanks”, they are expecting the reward from Allah).

Further virtues:

Anas ibn Maalik narrated that the prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "No servant is blessed by Allah and says,`Al-Hamdu Lillah', except that what he was given is better than that which he has himself acquired."

(Ibn Maajah)

Jaabir reported that the prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The best Dhikr (remembering Allah) is La ilaha illallah and the best supplication is Al-Hamdu Lillah."

(At Tirmidhi, An Nasaai and Ibn Maajah)

Al Aswad ibn Saari narrated that the prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Verily, your Lord likes Al-Hamd."

(An Nasaai and Ahmad)

Two names are used for Allah in this ayah:

Allah, the greatest name (as was mentioned in the tafsir of the basmalah), the only one who is worshipped.
Rabb, the greatest attribute, the one who creates, provides, sustains and governs.
Thus both tawheed of uloohiyyah (worship) and tawhid of ruboobiyyah (lordship) are mentioned.

Tafsir of [1:2]

"The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful."

This has been discussed in the previous lesson.

Tafsir of [1:3]

"The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense"

Maalik

This shows the complete authority and sovereignity of Allah alone on this day.

None will speak without Allah's permission:

"The Day that Ar-Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel) or another angel] and the angels will stand forth in rows, none shall speak except him whom the Most Beneficent (Allah) allows, and he will speak what is right." [78:38]

Yawm ad Din

Din has several meanings:

Reward and punishment as in this ayah of al faatihah
Path, as in [109:6]
Governance, as in [8:39]
Rules, as in [42:13]
Religion, as in what is legislated by Allah for His creation of the rulings, [5[48]

The terrors of this day shall be such that a child will turn grey and an individual will run from others saying "Myself! Myself!"

 

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