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Hajj and Umrah

Rulings related to relieving one's self - part 3

Further Issues

Entering the toilet with something on which Allah is mentioned

All of the madhaahib are in agreement that it is disliked to enter the toilet with something that mentions the name of Allah. This is based on the hadith:

"When the messenger of Allah would enter the toilet, he would remove his ring."

(Abu Dawud, ibn Maajah, An Nasaai and others from Anas ibn Maalik)

This hadith is considered weak according to many scholars and An Nasaai himself said this hadith is 'ghayr mahfudh', a specific term in hadith terminology that means the hadith is weak. Ibn Hajar also said something similar with regards to this hadith.

Despite this, most of the scholars of fiqh have taken this hadith as a reference in this discussion as even though there is discussion on the hadith, human intellect would lead one to the conclusion that taking such honourable names to the toilet is not something that is appropriate.

It is important to note that they all agreed it was disliked. There is a difference of opinion as to whether this reaches the level of haraam.

The items one takes into the toilet can be broadly divided into two categories:

1. The Qur'aan

With regards to taking the Qur'aan or mushaf to the toilet, Shaafi'ee scholars said that this is makrooh but not haraam. Maaliki and Hanbali scholars said that it is haraam to enter the toilet with the Qur'aan or mushaf except in the case of necessity. Some Maaliki scholars said even if it is completely covered, it is still haraam to enter the toilet with it. Hanafi scholars have said that if it is completely covered, in a bag or something similar, than it is not haraam to enter the toilet with it but it is better to avoid this.
The ruling on a part of the Qur'aan is the same as the whole of the Qur'aan. However, if one has a book that contains some verses of the Qur'aan, this ruling does not apply. Rather, it takes the ruling of the second category, i.e. that which contains something of honour.

2. Something other than the Qur'aan that has something of honour on it, e.g. the hadith, the name of Allah, the prophets or even the angels.

According to Shaafi'ee and Hanbali scholars, they said that it is clear that if the name of Allah is mentioned on something like a ring, it is disliked to enter the toilet with it but it is not haram. They based this on the hadith narrated by Anas ibn Maalik as the ring of the prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam had the words 'Muhammad ur Rasoolullah'.
Ibn ul Mundhir mentioned that several scholars from amongst the second generation had rings with similar things of honour mentioned on them but they never had a problem entering the toilet with them.
Generally, the scholars have ruled that this is makruh but some, like ibn ul Mundhir, considered it to be permissible without any dislike. Those who considered it permissible said that as there is no strong evidence to show that this is not permitted. Rather, the only proof for that argument is the hadith recorded from Anas that is weak.
On the other hand, it is well known that many of the Salaf (the first three generations) had such things written on their rings. Additionally, there is an authentic report where the prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:

"I have taken this ring and I have engraved on it the words 'Muhammad ur Rasoolullah' do not engrave on your rings what I have engraved on mine"

(Al Bukhari, Muslim and others from Anas ibn Maalik)

This implies that other similar words are permissible without any limitation as long as the exact words the prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa sallam used on his ring were not used. If there was a problem with this, the prophet would surely have warned against that. And this is why these scholars said that it is more likely that this is not disliked and this was the opinion of Imaam Maalik and ash Shaafi'.

Furthermore, in a similar hadith, the prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:

"When the messenger intended to write letters to the kings of the romans, persians and abyssinians, it was said that these do not except letters without a seal. So the prophet got a ring made of silver with 'Muhammad ur Rasoolullah' engraved on it"

(Al Bukhari, Muslim and others from Anas ibn Maalik)

It was also narrated that the engravement was of three lines, Muhammad, then Rasool, then Allah. In fact, the letters with these words along with verses of Qur'aan were sent to non-Muslims without huge concern over where they would take the letters or what they would do with them.
Thus the authentic evidence suggests there is nothing wrong with taking such items into the toilet, though if a person is careful with this, then that is better as it was narrated that some of the companions would turn the ring so that the engravement is towards the inside of the palm when going to the toilet.
However, the scholars have mentioned that when one is cleaning themselves, such a ring/other item should not be in the left hand that one uses to clean themselves after relieving one's self.
The scholars have mentioned that if one is forced to wear such a ring in the toilet, there is no problem with this. The Hanbali scholars have said this is not just when one is forced, but also if there is some need, for example, if he is on a journey and feels it would be safer to take it with him.
The outcome of all this discussion is that if one wishes to be careful, he should remove the ring or other item when going to the toilet.

 

Note that there is some discussion with regards to which hand a man should wear his ring on. The preferred view is that if a man wears a ring, he should do so on the small finger of the right hand. It is haraam for a man to wear a gold ring and some scholars have mentioned that a man should only wear a silver ring.

The rememberance one does when entering and exiting the toilet

A number of narrations have been reported in regards to this, that a person and the scholars have even mentioned that this is not just for the place that is normally used for the toilet, but also if one needs to relieve themselves outside, for example, in the desert or the countryside.

Various words have been reported but mainly comprise of taking Allah's name and seeking refuge from the shaytaan. There is a lot of discussion on what should be said before and what should be said after. There is a well known du'aa taken from the hadith:

"Allahumma inni a'oodhu bika min al khubthi wal khabaaith"

"O Allah, I seek refuge with you from the male and female filth (shayaatin)"

(Al Bukhari and Muslim from Anas)

 

The issue to understand is that they can see you when you cannot see them:

"...Indeed, he sees you, he and his tribe, from where you do not see them. Indeed, We have made the devils allies to those who do not believe." [Al A'raaf:27]

This is why the messenger of Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said in the authentic hadith:

"The barrier between the sight of the jinn and the private parts of the children of Aadam is that when one of them enters the toilet, he says 'Bismillah'"

(At Tirmidhi)

Some narrations also mention "Bismillah, laa ilaaha illa hu"

Some scholars said that you should take the name of Allah and then seek refuge from the shaytaan however, others said the other way around is more correct. It is sufficient to say Bismillah but any of these are suitable.

A subtle point that some shaafi'ee scholars mentioned is that one should not say 'Bismillah ar Rahmaan ar Raheem' as this is a place of filth but this point can be argued.

Another point is that this should be said before actually entering the area of the toilet and this has been emphasised by some scholars. The issue of mentioning Allah's name in the toilet was discussed in a previous lesson.

Additionally, there are different things one can say on leaving the toilet. Statements that are known to the scholars like "Ghufraanak" or "Alhamdulillahilladhi adhaba 'anni adhaa wa 'aafaani" have been narrated and are appropriate.

The du'aa "Alhamdulillahilladhi akhraja 'anni ma yu'deeni wa abqaa fi ma yanfa'ani" is reported by some of the smaller compilers of hadith and the scholars considered this to be weak.

Placing the left foot before the right when entering the toilet

One should enter the toilet with the left foot and exit with the right foot. It is known from the messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam that anything associated with honour and respect was done with his right and that which was associated with dirt or filth was done with his left. This was also mentioned in a previous lesson.

Closing the door of the toilet

"When the wings of the night (spread) or it is night, restrain your children (from going out), for the shayaatin spread out at that time, and when a part of the night is passed, free them and shut the doors. making mention of Allah's name, for the shaytaan does not open a closed door..."

(Al Bukhari and Muslim from Jaabir ibn 'Abdillah)

Many people do not implement this with regards to their toilets, leaving the door to the place of the shayaatin open. We should all take care of closing the door of the toilet to prevent the shayaating from having access to the rest of our homes.

 

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