Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allāh) [above all that (evil) they associate
with Him] [Tafsir Qurtubī, Vol. 10, Page 204] Who took His slave (Muhammad
) for a journey by
night from Al-Masjid-al-Harām (at Makkah) to the farthest mosque (in
Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might
show him (Muhammad )
of Our Ayāt (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is
the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.
And We gave Mūsa (Moses) the Scripture and made it a guidance for the
Children of Israel (saying): "Take not other than Me as (your) Wakīl
(Protector, Lord, or Disposer of your affairs, etc).
"O offspring of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nūh (Noah)!
Verily, he was a grateful slave."
And We decreed for the Children of Israel in the Scripture, that indeed
you would do mischief on the earth twice and you will become tyrants and extremely
So, when the promise came for the first of the two, We sent against you
slaves of Ours given to terrible warfare. They entered the very innermost
parts of your homes. And it was a promise (completely) fulfilled.
Then We gave you once again, a return of victory over them. And We helped
you with wealth and children and made you more numerous in man power.
(And We said): "If you do good, you do good for your ownselves, and
if you do evil (you do it) against yourselves." Then, when the second
promise came to pass, (We permitted your enemies) to make your faces sorrowful
and to enter the mosque (of Jerusalem) as they had entered it before, and
to destroy with utter destruction all that fell in their hands.
[And We said in the Taurāt (Torah)]: "It may be that your Lord may
show mercy unto you, but if you return (to sins), We shall return (to Our
Punishment). And We have made Hell a prison for the disbelievers.
Verily, this Qur'ān guides to that which is most just and right and gives
glad tidings to the believers (in the Oneness of Allāh and His Messenger,
Muhammad , etc.).
who work deeds of righteousness, that they shall have a great reward (Paradise).
And that those who believe not in the Hereafter (i.e. they disbelieve
that they will be recompensed for what they did in this world, good or bad,
etc.), for them We have prepared a painful torment (Hell).
And man invokes (Allāh) for evil as he invokes (Allāh) for good and man
is ever hasty [i.e., if he is angry with somebody, he invokes (saying): "O
Allāh! Curse him, etc." and that one should not do, but one should be
And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayāt (signs
etc.). Then, We have made dark the sign of the night while We have made the
sign of day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that
you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained
everything (in detail) with full explanation.
And We have fastened every man's deeds to his neck, and on the Day of
Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a book which he will find wide open.
(It will be said to him): "Read your book. You yourself are sufficient
as a reckoner against you this Day."
Whoever goes right, then he goes right only for the benefit of his ownself.
And whoever goes astray, then he goes astray to his own loss. No one laden
with burdens can bear another's burden. And We never punish until We have
sent a Messenger (to give warning).
And when We decide to destroy a town (population), We (first) send a definite
order (to obey Allāh and be righteous) to those among them [or We (first)
increase in number those of its population] who are given the good things
of this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word (of torment)
is justified against it (them). Then We destroy it with complete destruction.
And how many generations have We destroyed after Nūh (Noah)! And Sufficient
is your Lord as an All-Knower and All-Beholder of the sins of His slaves.
Whoever wishes for the quick-passing (transitory enjoyment of this world),
We readily grant him what We will for whom We like. Then, afterwards, We have
appointed for him Hell, he will burn therein disgraced and rejected, ( far
away from Allāh's Mercy).
And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it, with the necessary
effort due for it (i.e. do righteous deeds of Allāh's Obedience) while he
is a believer (in the Oneness of Allāh Islāmic Monotheism), then such are
the ones whose striving shall be appreciated, thanked and rewarded (by Allāh).
To each these as well as those We bestow from the Bounties of your Lord.
And the Bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden.
See how We prefer one above another (in this world) and verily, the Hereafter
will be greater in degrees and greater in preference.
Set not up with Allāh any other ilāh (god), (O man)! (This verse
is addressed to Prophet Muhammad
, but its implication is general to all mankind), or you will sit down reproved,
forsaken (in the Hell-fire).
And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you
be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age
in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but
address them in terms of honour.
And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy,
and say: "My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up
when I was small."
Your Lord knows best what is in your inner-selves. If you are righteous,
then, verily, He is Ever Most Forgiving to those who turn unto Him again and
again in obedience, and in repentance.
And give to the kindred his due and to the Miskīn (poor) and to
the wayfarer. But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift
. [Tafsir. At-Tabarī, Vol. 10, Page 158 (Verse 9: 60)].
Verily, spendthrifts are brothers of the Shayatīn (devils), and
the Shaitān (Devil Satan) is ever ungrateful to his Lord.
And if you (O Muhammad )
turn away from them (kindred, poor, wayfarer, etc. whom We have ordered you
to give their rights, but if you have no money at the time they ask you for
it) and you are awaiting a mercy from your Lord for which you hope, then,
speak unto them a soft kind word (i.e. Allāh will give me and I shall give
And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck, nor stretch
it forth to its utmost reach (like a spendthrift), so that you become blameworthy
and in severe poverty.
Truly, your Lord enlarges the provision for whom He wills and straitens
(for whom He wills). Verily, He is Ever All-Knower, All-Seer of His slaves.
And kill not your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them and
for you. Surely, the killing of them is a great sin.
And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a
Fāhishah [i.e. anything that transgresses its limits (a great sin)],
and an evil way (that leads one to Hell unless Allāh forgives him).
And do not kill anyone which Allāh has forbidden, except for a just cause.
And whoever is killed (intentionally with hostility and oppression and not
by mistake), We have given his heir the authority [(to demand Qisās,
Law of Equality in punishment or to forgive, or to take Diya (blood
money)]. But let him not exceed limits in the matter of taking life (i.e he
should not kill except the killer only). Verily, he is helped (by the Islāmic
And come not near to the orphan's property except to improve it, until
he attains the age of full strength. And fulfil (every) covenant. Verily!
the covenant, will be questioned about.
And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a balance that
is straight. That is good (advantageous) and better in the end.
And follow not (O man i.e., say not, or do not or witness not, etc.) that
of which you have no knowledge (e.g. one's saying: "I have seen,"
while in fact he has not seen, or "I have heard," while he has not
heard). Verily! The hearing, and the sight, and the heart, of each of those
you will be questioned (by Allāh).
And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can
neither rend nor penetrate the earth, nor can you attain a stature like the
mountains in height.
All the bad aspects of these (the above mentioned things) are hateful
to your Lord.
This is (part) of Al-Hikmah (wisdom, good manners and high character,
etc.) which your Lord has inspired to you (O Muhammad
). And set not up with Allāh any other ilāh (god) lest you should be
thrown into Hell, blameworthy and rejected, (from Allāh's Mercy).
Has then your Lord (O pagans of Makkah) preferred for you sons, and taken
for Himself from among the angels daughters. Verily! You utter an awful saying,
And surely, We have explained [Our Promises, Warnings and (set forth many)
examples] in this Qur'ān that they (the disbelievers) may take heed, but it
increases them in naught save aversion.
Say (O Muhammad
to these polytheists, pagans, etc.): "If there had been other āliha
(gods) along with Him as they assert, then they would certainly have sought
out a way to the Lord of the Throne (seeking His Pleasures and to be near
Glorified and High be He! From 'Uluwan Kabīra (the great falsehood)
that they say! (i.e.forged statements that there are other gods along with
Allāh, but He is Allāh, the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, whom all creatures
need. He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable or
coequal unto Him).
The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and
there is not a thing but glorifies His Praise. But you understand not their
glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.
And when you (Muhammad )
recite the Qur'ān, We put between you and those who believe not in the Hereafter,
an invisible veil (or screen their hearts, so they hear or understand it not).
And We have put coverings over their hearts lest, they should understand
it (the Qur'ān), and in their ears deafness. And when you make mention of
your Lord Alone [Lā ilāha ill-Allāh (none has the right to be worshipped
but Allāh) Islāmic Monotheism] in the Qur'ān, they turn on their backs, fleeing
in extreme dislikeness.
We know best of what they listen to, when they listen to you. And when
they take secret counsel, behold, the Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers,
etc.) say: "You follow none but a bewitched man."
See what examples they have put forward for you. So they have gone astray,
and never can they find a way.
And they say: "When we are bones and fragments (destroyed), should
we really be resurrected (to be) a new creation?"
Say (O Muhammad )
"Be you stones or iron,"
"Or some created thing that is yet greater (or harder) in your breasts
(thoughts to be resurrected, even then you shall be resurrected)" Then,
they will say: "Who shall bring us back (to life)?" Say: "He
Who created you first!" Then, they will shake their heads at you and
say: "When will that be ?" Say: "Perhaps it is near!"
On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer (His Call) with
(words of) His Praise and Obedience, and you will think that you have stayed
(in this world) but a little while!
And say to My slaves (i.e. the true believers of Islāmic Monotheism) that
they should (only) say those words that are the best. (Because) Shaitān
(Satan) verily, sows disagreements among them. Surely, Shaitān (Satan)
is to man a plain enemy.
Your Lord knows you best, if He will, He will have mercy on you, or if
He will, He will punish you. And We have not sent you (O Muhammad
as a guardian over them.
And your Lord knows best all who are in the heavens and the earth. And
indeed, We have preferred some of the Prophets above others, and to Dawūd
(David) We gave the Zabūr (Psalms).
Say (O Muhammad ):
"Call unto those besides Him whom you pretend [to be gods like angels,
Iesā (Jesus), 'Uzair (Ezra), etc.]. They have neither the power to remove
the adversity from you nor even to shift it from you to another person."
Those whom they call upon [like 'Iesa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary),
'Uzair (Ezra), angel, etc.] desire (for themselves) means of access to their
Lord (Allāh), as to which of them should be the nearest and they ['Iesa (Jesus),
'Uzair (Ezra), angels, etc.] hope for His Mercy and fear His Torment. Verily,
the Torment of your Lord is something to be afraid of!
And there is not a town (population) but We shall destroy it before the
Day of Resurrection, or punish it with a severe torment. That is written in
the Book (of our Decrees)
And nothing stops Us from sending the Ayāt (proofs, evidences,
signs) but that the people of old denied them. And We sent the she-camel to
Thamūd as a clear sign, but they did her wrong. And We sent not the signs
except to warn, and to make them afraid (of destruction).
And (remember) when We told you: "Verily! Your Lord has encompassed
mankind (i.e. they are in His Grip)." And We made not the vision which
we showed you (O Muhammad as an actual eye-witness and not as a dream on the
night of Al-Isrā') but a trial for mankind, and likewise the accursed
tree (Zaqqūm, mentioned) in the Qur'ān. We warn and make them afraid
but it only increases them in naught save great disbelief, oppression and
disobedience to Allāh.
And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate unto Adam."
They prostrated except Iblīs (Satan). He said: "Shall I prostrate
to one whom You created from clay?"
[Iblīs (Satan)] said: "See? This one whom You have honoured
above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection,
I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all
but a few!"
(Allāh) said: "Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely! Hell
will be the recompense of you (all) an ample recompense.
"And Istafziz [literally means: befool them gradually] those
whom you can among them with your voice (i.e. songs, music, and any other
call for Allāh's disobedience), make assaults on them with your cavalry and
your infantry, mutually share with them wealth and children (by tempting them
to earn money by illegal ways usury, etc., or by committing illegal sexual
intercourse, etc.), and make promises to them." But Satan promises them
nothing but deceit.
"Verily! My slaves (i.e the true believers of Islāmic Monotheism),
you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian."
Your Lord is He Who drives the ship for you through the sea, in order
that you may seek of His Bounty. Truly! He is Ever Most Merciful towards you.
And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon besides
Him vanish from you except Him (Allāh Alone). But when He brings you safely
to land, you turn away (from Him). And man is ever ungrateful.
Do you then feel secure that He will not cause a side of the land to swallow
you up, or that He will not send against you a violent sand-storm? Then, you
shall find no Wakīl (guardian one to guard you from the torment).
Or do you feel secure that He will not send you back a second time to
sea and send against you a hurricane of wind and drown you because of your
disbelief, then you will not find any avenger therein against Us?
And indeed We have honoured the Children of Adam, and We have carried
them on land and sea, and have provided them with At-Taiyibāt (lawful
good things), and have preferred them above many of those whom We have created
with a marked preference.
(And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with
their (respective) Imām [their Prophets, or their records of good and
bad deeds, or their Holy Books like the Qur'ān, the Taurāt (Torah), the Injeel
(Gospel), etc.]. So whosoever is given his record in his right hand, such
will read their records, and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.
And whoever is blind in this world (i.e., does not see Allāh's Signs and
believes not in Him), will be blind in the Hereafter, and more astray from
Verily, they were about to tempt you away from that which We have revealed
(the Qur'ān) unto you (O Muhammad ),
to fabricate something other than it against Us, and then they would certainly
have taken you a friend!
And had We not made you stand firm, you would nearly have inclined to
them a little.
In that case, We would have made you taste a double portion (of punishment)
in this life and a double portion (of punishment) after death. And then you
would have found none to help you against Us.
And Verily, they were about to frighten you so much as to drive you out
from the land. But in that case they would not have stayed (therein) after
you, expcept for a little while.
(This was Our) Sunnah (rule or way) with the Messengers We sent
before you (O Muhammad ),
and you will not find any alteration in Our Sunnah (rule or way, etc.).
Perform AsSalāt (Iqamāt-as-Salāt) from mid-day till the
darkness of the night (i.e. the Zuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib, and 'Ishā'
prayers), and recite the Qur'ān in the early dawn (i.e. the morning prayer).
Verily, the recitation of the Qur'ān in the early dawn is ever witnessed (attended
by the angels in charge of mankind of the day and the night).
And in some parts of the night (also) offer the Salāt (prayer)
with it (i.e. recite the Qur'an in the prayer), as an additional prayer (Tahajjud
optional prayer Nawāfil) for you (O Muhammad
It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqāman Mahmūda (a station
of praise and glory, i.e. the highest degree in Paradise!).
And say (O Muhammad ):
My Lord! Let my entry (to the city of Al-Madinah) be good, and likewise my
exit (from the city of Makkah) be good. And grant me from You an authority
to help me (or a firm sign or a proof).
And say: "Truth (i.e. Islāmic Monotheism or this Qur'ān or Jihād
against polytheists) has come and Bātil (falsehood, i.e. Satan
or polytheism, etc.) has vanished. Surely! Bātil is ever bound to vanish."
And We send down from the Qur'ān that which is a healing and a mercy to
those who believe (in Islāmic Monotheism and act on it), and it increases
the Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers) nothing but loss.
And when We bestow Our Grace on man (the disbeliever), he turns away and
becomes arrogant, far away from the Right Path. And when evil touches him
he is in great despair.
Say (O Muhammad
to mankind): "Each one does according to Shakilatihi (i.e. his
way or his religion or his intentions, etc.), and your Lord knows best of
him whose path (religion, etc.) is right."
And they ask you (O Muhammad )
concerning the Rūh (the Spirit); Say: "The Rūh (the Spirit):
it is one of the things, the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And
of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little."
And if We willed We could surely take away that which We have revealed
to you by inspiration (i.e. this Qur'ān). Then you would find no protector
for you against Us in that respect.
Except as a Mercy from your Lord. Verily! His Grace unto you (O Muhammad
) is ever great.
Say: "If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like
of this Qur'ān, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped
And indeed We have fully explained to mankind, in this Qur'ān, every kind
of similitude, but most mankind refuse (the truth and accept nothing) but
And they say: "We shall not believe in you (O Muhammad
until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us;
"Or you have a garden of date-palms and grapes, and cause rivers
to gush forth in their midst abundantly;
"Or you cause the heaven to fall upon us in pieces, as you have pretended,
or you bring Allāh and the angels before (us) face to face;
"Or you have a house of adornable materials (like silver and pure
gold, etc.), or you ascend up into the sky, and even then we will put no faith
in your ascension until you bring down for us a Book that we would read."
Say (O Muhammad ):
"Glorified (and Exalted) be my Lord (Allāh) above all that evil they
(polytheists) associate with Him! Am I anything but a man, sent as a Messenger?"
And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them,
except that they said: "Has Allāh sent a man as (His) Messenger?"
Say: "If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace and
security, We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel
as a Messenger."
Say: "Sufficient is Allāh for a witness between me and you. Verily!
He is the All-Knower, the All-Seer of His slaves."
And he whom Allāh guides, he is led aright; but he whom He sends astray
for such you will find no Auliyā' (helpers and protectors, etc.), besides
Him, and We shall gather them together on the Day of Resurrection on their
faces, blind, dumb and deaf, their abode will be Hell; whenever it abates,
We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire.
That is their recompense, because they denied Our Ayāt (proofs,
evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and said: "When
we are bones and fragments, shall we really be raised up as a new creation?"
See they not that Allāh, Who created the heavens and the earth, is Able
to create the like of them. And He has decreed for them an appointed term,
whereof there is not doubt. But the Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers,
etc.) refuse (the truth the Message of Islāmic Monotheism, and accept nothing)
Say (to the disbelievers): "If you possessed the treasure of the
Mercy of my Lord (wealth, money, provision, etc.), then you would surely hold
back (from spending) for fear of (being exhausted), and man is ever miserly!"
And indeed We gave to Mūsa (Moses) nine clear signs. Ask then the Children
of Israel, when he came to them, then Fir'aun (Pharaoh) said to him: "O
Mūsa (Moses)! I think you are indeed bewitched."
[Mūsa (Moses)] said: "Verily, you know that these signs have been
sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as clear (evidences
i.e. proofs of Allāh's Oneness and His Omnipotence, etc.). And I think you
are, indeed, O Fir'aun (Pharaoh) doomed to destruction (away from all good)!"
So he resolved to turn them out of the land (of Egypt). But We drowned
him and all who were with him.
And We said to the Children of Israel after him: "Dwell in the land,
then, when the final and the last promise comes near [i.e. the Day of Resurrection
or the descent of Christ ['Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary) on the earth].
We shall bring you altogether as mixed crowd (gathered out of various nations).[Tafsir
Al-Qurtubī, Vol. 10, Page 338]
And with truth We have sent it down (i.e. the Qur'ān), and with truth
it has descended. And We have sent you (O Muhammad
as nothing but a bearer of glad tidings (of Paradise, for those who follow
your Message of Islāmic Monotheism), and a warner (of Hell-fire for those
who refuse to follow your Message of Islāmic Monotheism).
And (it is) a Qur'ān which We have divided (into parts), in order that
you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages.
(in 23 years).
Say (O Muhammad
to them): "Believe in it (the Qur'ān) or do not believe (in it). Verily!
Those who were given knowledge before it (the Jews and the Christians like
'Abdullāh bin Salām and Salmān Al-Farisī), when it is recited to them, fall
down on their faces in humble prostration."
And they say: "Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the Promise of our Lord
must be fulfilled."
And they fall down on their faces weeping and it adds to their humility.
Say (O Muhammad ):
"Invoke Allāh or invoke the Most Beneficent (Allāh), by whatever name
you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names. And offer
your Salāt (prayer) neither aloud nor in a low voice, but follow a
And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allāh, Who has not begotten
a son (nor an offspring), and Who has no partner in (His) Dominion, nor He
is low to have a Walī (helper, protector or supporter). And magnify
Him with all the magnificence, [Allāhu-Akbar (Allāh is the Most Great)]."